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EndNote for Windows


Take a class

The Galter Library teaches a related class called EndNote. See our Classes schedule for the next available offering. If this class is not on our upcoming schedule, it is still available to you or your group by request.

An EndNote Video Tutorial is also available.

 

Background

EndNote is bibliographic management software that allows users to manage citations in personal libraries and create bibliographies based on a number of available journal or writing styles. This guide will aid you in performing basic tasks using EndNote. The guide has been recently updated to reflect changes since the release of the most current version of EndNote (X6, or "EndNote Sixteen"); however, most of the content is still applicable to older versions of EndNote.

In addition to this guide, you may want to consult the EndNote Support page for information on downloading the software and the EndNote FAQ page for (you guessed it) frequently asked questions.

The following video demonstrates how to acquire EndNote.

 

Getting Started

Creating a New Library

  • Open EndNote by double-clicking on the EndNote icon OR by locating EndNote on the computer's hard drive.
  • Depending on the program's preferences, you may see differing options here: the most recently-used library may open or you may see a blank EndNote application window. To create a new library, go to File > New.
  • Name your library and pick a location on your computer where the library will be saved.
  • Click Save.

Choosing Fields to Display as Column Headings in your Library

You can choose up to ten fields to display as column headings in your library.

  • Go to Edit, Preferences.
  • Choose Display Fields from the left-hand list.
  • Choose your desired field for each column from the drop-down menus. Note: If you want to remove a column so that fewer than ten fields appear, you can choose "[Do not display]" from the drop-down menu.

The following video demonstrates how to create a new library and back it up.

 

Using Term Lists

  • To ensure that your bibliographies will be formatted correctly, you should import a journal term list before you add any references to your library.
  • Go to the Tools menu, Open Terms Lists, and then Journals Term List.
  • A blank table will appear. Click the Lists tab, highlight Journals, then click Import List.
  • Navigate to your EndNote folder (for Windows: C Drive>Program Files>EndNote; for Mac: Applications>EndNote) and choose the Terms Lists folder. Select the subject area for the type of references you will be working with (biosciences, chemical, medical, humanities, etc).
  • The table will be filled with full journal titles and their official abbreviations.
  • You can repeat these steps to include more than one journal list.

Opening an EndNote Library

  • Open EndNote by double-clicking on the EndNote icon OR by locating EndNote on the computer's hard drive OR by double-clicking on the library file (it will be black, red, and blue).
  • Depending on the program's preferences, you may see differing options here: the most recently-used library may open or you may see a blank EndNote application window. Go to File > Open Library or you can select a recently-used library from the list.

 

 

Manual Entry of Data Into Your Library

This is the most labor-intensive way to put references into EndNote, and the way that is most prone to errors. Use this method as a last resort, if you can't find your reference(s) in a database like MEDLINE, or in a library catalog like Northwestern University's NUcat for books or book chapters. (You would just need to get the record for the book and modify your EndNote record to reflect a chapter of that book).

  • Go to the References menu and select New Reference.
  • Select the appropriate Reference Type. Journal Article is the default.

New Reference

  • Enter data:
    • Author names must be entered one per line e.g. Smith, J.T. OR John Tom Smith
    • Put a period or space between initials. Try to be consistent with other references in your EndNote library.
    • Use ? for unknown dates
    • End corporate names with a comma, e.g. U.S. Department of Agriculture,
  • Go to the File menu and select Save, or close the record and select "Yes" when prompted to save.

The following video demonstrates how to manually enter records into your EndNote library.

 

 

Searching Databases Using the EndNote Interface

EndNote allows direct connections to several databases using connection files that are included in your EndNote software package. To access NU-restricted resources (for example, Ovid databases and Web of Science) through EndNote, you will need to be on the Northwestern University network or connected via a Virtual Private Network (VPN). If you are not connected, you can still use the Import method described in the next section.

Databases like PubMed or the NU library catalog (NUcat) should be ready to go, and access is not restricted.

Please Note: If you want to search MEDLINE, select PubMed. This option allows you to search the database regardless of your location.

Types of Searches

The EndNote search interface is very basic and does not support advanced searching options such as the ability to explode or focus in MEDLINE. The searching via EndNote method is good for retrieving "known items", i.e. articles you know already exist or all articles by a particular author. It is not as useful for subject searching (for this see Importing Search Results into EndNote).

There are two ways to search online databases using the EndNote search interface. Which method should you use?

The Integrated Library & Online Search Mode
This search mode connects to you to your chosen database and downloads the results of your searches directly to your EndNote library. If you download citations that you don't want, you will have to delete them from your library. This method is recommended only if you are confident that the results you find are the ones you want to keep. While you can always delete records you don't want, this is probably not the most efficient way to manage your search results.

Integrated Library & Online Search Mode


Note: this is the default search mode.

The Online Search Mode (Temporary Library) - Recommended
This search mode connects you to your chosen database and downloads the results of your searches to a temporary library, from which you can choose which citations you would like to copy to your library. This gives you greater control over how you handle search results.  We recommend this search method over the Integrated Library method.

Online Search Mode (Temporary Library)

Performing Searches

  • Choose either the The Integrated Library & Online Search Mode or the The Online Search Mode (Temporary Library) icon in the upper left-hand corner of your EndNote library window
  • In the left-hand Groups pane, select one of the options under Online Search. If you don't see the option you want listed there, select "more" to see the complete list of potential connection files that came with EndNote. EndNote comes with hundreds commonly-used connection files. If you don't see the name of the database you want to search, you can download and install more connection files from the EndNote website.
  • If you are using a licensed database, such as Ovid MEDLINE or PsycINFO, and you are on the NU campus, you do not need to enter a User ID or password. If prompted for a password, just click OK to connect, without entering any information. If you are of-campus and you wish to search a licensed database, you need to be connected to the VPN or use one of the other importing options for Ovid or EBSCO databases outlined below.
Choose Connection

 

  • At the top of the search window will be the name of the database you're searching. Verify that you are searching the proper database.

 

  • Enter your search terms, select field(s) to search (e.g. Author, Title, etc.) and click on the Search button.
    Please Note:
    • For Journal Searching: Use the full journal name, not an abbreviation.
    • For Author searching: Type the last name first, followed by a comma and the first initial.
     
    Online Search
  • Once references are retrieved, a screen appears listing search results. Select the number of results you wish to retrieve.
    Note: Retrieving a large number of citations can take some time. You may want to choose a manageable number of citations to retrieve or modify your search if your result set is too large. The citations most recently entered into the database you are searching will appear at the top of your retrieval set.
Confirm results

 

 

Download references

 

 

Integrated Library & OnlineSearch Mode: click OK to confirm that you wish to retrieve these references. They will be downloaded directly to your library, at which point, you can delete any references you do not want.

Online Search Mode (Temporary Library): click OK to confirm that you wish to retrieve these references. They will be downloaded to a temporary library, at which point you can decide which references to move into your personal library.

  • Select (highlight) the citations you want to add to your library using your mouse and the CTRL or SHIFT keys. Go to the Copy to Local Library icon in the top icon menu and click it. An alternative is to go to References - Copy References To and then select either a new library or a previously created library to save citations to your library. You can also right-click on the selected reference(s) and transfer this way.

     
    Copy References

 

  • Local Library ModeIt may not be immediately obvious that you have transferred references to your library. Click the Local Library Mode icon in the upper-left hand corner to return to your library. You should see the recently added references in your library. They will also be available as a temporary group called Copied References in the left-hand pane.

 

The following video demonstrates how to search PubMed using the EndNote interface.

 

 

Importing Search Results from PubMed

When searching PubMed, there are two ways to save citations into your EndNote library. If you are working with fewer than 200 results, you will likely want to use the citation manager option. For result sets greater than 200, you will likely want to use the plain text file method. Before importing/exporting results, be sure you have the latest EndNote import filters for the databases you are searching installed on your computer.

Citation Manager option in PubMed

  • Perform your search in PubMed.
  • Select the references you want to save.
  • From the Send to drop-down menu, choose Citation Manager
  • Click Create File
  • Depending on your browser, the next steps will vary. In both IE and Firefox, you will choose to open the file. In IE, the file may go to your Downloads folder. Either way, you should be presented with an option to choose a program to open the file. If EndNote is not already selected, choose it.
  • If EndNote is not open, you will be asked to choose a library. 
  • The citations will import into EndNote.

Exporting References from PubMed as a Plain Text File

If you are working with a result set of more than 200 references, you will likely want to use this method.

  • Perform your search in PubMed.
  • Select the references you want to save. If you want to export the entire result set do not select any references.
  • From the Send to drop-down menu, choose File.
  • From the Format drop-down menu, choose MEDLINE.
  • Click Create File.
  • Save the downloaded file to your desktop, downloads folder, or other easily discoverable location.
  • In EndNote choose File>>Import>>File.
  • In the Import File field, click Choose, locate the file you just downloaded, select it, and click Open.
  • In the Import Option field choose PubMed (NLM). Note: the first time you do this, you will need to choose Other Filters and then select PubMed (NLM) from the list of import filter options.
  • Click Import and the records will be imported into your EndNote library.

 

 

Importing Search Results from Ovid Databases

This is the recommended way to put citations into your EndNote library. This method allows you to take advantage of the search features of the database you are using and will usually result in more precise search results. Before importing/exporting results, be sure you have the latest EndNote import filters for the databases you are searching installed on your computer.

Ovid Databases: Direct Export

  • Perform your search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, or any other Ovid database.
  • Select the references that you want to save.
  • Select the Export link at the top of the results list. In the resulting pop-up window, choose EndNote from the drop-down menu and Complete Reference. Then click Export Citation(s).

    Direct Export from Ovid

  • Depending on the browser you use, there may be an intermediate window. If you are using Firefox, you may be prompted to open with Research Direct Export Helper. You can select this as the default way of handling Ovid citations for future direct exports by checking a box in that window. If you are using Internet Explorer, you will not see this option.
  • If EndNote was not previously open, it will open and you will be prompted to select a library for your references. Select the library you want the citations to go into.
  • If you already have an EndNote library open, the references will be exported to the open library.
  • You may be prompted to choose an Import Filter in EndNote. Older versions of EndNote (prior to X3) will usually have an Ovid SP filter already included in the Import Filter list. If you don't see a MEDLINE (OvidSP) or EMBASE (OvidSP) import filter listed, you will need to download one from the EndNote website and save it to your Filters folder in the EndNote program folder on your computer. Once the filter is saved and selected, future direct exports from Ovid should be handled more smoothly.
  • To see your full library again, go to the References menu and select Show All References or click Show All References in the groups pane.
Note: If you are searching Ovid using a computer that does not have EndNote on it, select Reprint/Medlars as the export option instead of EndNote. This will create a text file that you can import into EndNote later. When you have access to EndNote, open the library you would like to add your citations to, go to File, Import, find the file you saved, choose MEDLINE (OvidSP) as your Import filter, and click the Import button.
 

Importing Search Results from EBSCO Databases

When searching Ebsco databases, there are two ways to save citations into your EndNote library. If you are working with larger result sets, you will likely want to use the email option. Be sure you have the latest EndNote import filters for the databases you are searching installed on your computer.

Importing References Using Folders

  • Run your search in PsycINFO, CINAHL with Full Text, or any other EBSCO database.
  • Click "Add to Folder" for each reference you want to export to EndNote.
     
    Ebsco Results
     
  • Click "Folder" within the banner at the top of the page.
  • Select all references in your folder and click the export button.
     
    Ebsco Folder
     
  • Follow the instructions on the resulting page to export the references to EndNote.

This video shows you how to export results from EBSCO databases into EndNote.

Email Search Results as an RIS File

If you are working with larger result sets, you will likely want have your references emailed to you as an RIS file which can be imported into EndNote.

  • Run your search in PsycINFO, CINAHL with Full Text, or any other EBSCO database.
  • From the Share drop-down menu choose Email a link to download exported results.
  • Be sure to choose RIS Format when filling out the form to have results emailed to you.

  • You will receive an email with a link to download the results as an RIS file.
  • Open your EndNote Library, then open the RIS file.
 

Importing Search Results from Web of Science

This is the recommended way to put citations into your EndNote library. This method allows you to take advantage of the search features of the database you are using and will usually result in more precise search results. Before importing/exporting results, be sure you have the latest EndNote import filters for the databases you are searching installed on your computer.

Web of Science (Science Citation Index): Direct Export

  • Perform your search in Web of Science.
  • Mark the references you want and Add to Marked List.
  • Click on the Marked List link at the top of the page.
  • In Step 1, select the fields you want to include (abstract, times cited, etc.)
  • In Step 2, leave the default selection at "Field Tagged".
  • Click on the Save to EndNote, RefMan, ProCite button.
  • The EndNote program will open.
  • Select the library you want the citations to go into.
  • To see your full library again, go to the References menu and select Show All References or click Show All References in the groups pane.
 

Groups

Groups make it easy to break a large library into subsets for later viewing. A group simply points to a subset of references that already exist in the library.

Some groups are automatically generated (All References, Trash, Copied References, Imported References and Search Results) and some are manually-created (Custom, Smart). This section is concerned with manually-created Custom Groups.

  • Custom Groups are manually created by the user to help organize the library; you can drag-and-drop to copy individual references into a custom group. Custom Groups are listed alphabetically (click the Groups header to toggle between ascending and descending order).
  • Smart Groups use search criteria to dynamically update groups as existing references are edited or new references are added to the library. For more on Smart Groups, see the EndNote Help section from within the EndNote program.

Creating a Custom Group

You have two options for creating a custom group. You can select references and then add them to a new group, or you can create an empty group and then add references to it.

Create a group in one of these ways:

  • From the Groups menu, choose Create Group.
  • Right click in the Groups pane of the Library window to display a contextual menu and select Create Group.
  • Select references in a reference list, then go to the Groups menu and choose Add References To>Create Group.

Enter a group name that is anywhere from 1 to 255 characters in length. There are no restrictions on the characters you can use in a group name. It is possible to give two different groups the same name.

You are limited to 500 custom and smart groups per library. Once you reach that limit, you must delete a group before you can add a new one.

To add references to a group:

  • First, select the references you want to add to the group. You can select several references at a time using the CTRL and/or SHIFT keys.
  • Add the references to a group. You have several methods available:
    • Drag and drop the selected references onto an existing custom group name in the left pane of the Library window (similar to creating a playlist in iTunes).
    • From the Groups menu, select Add References To and then select either the name of an existing custom group or Create Custom Group.
    • Right click on the reference list to display a contextual menu, select Add References To, and then select either the name of an existing custom group or Create Custom Group.
Adding references to a group

Click the name of the group in the Groups pane to see the references that appear in that group.

You can remove references from any of your custom groups or online search groups. The references will still be in your library and appear under All References, they just will not appear in that particular custom group. If you remove/delete references from your All References and and those references also appear in groups, they will be removed from the groups as well.

For more on Custom Groups search the EndNote Help section from within the EndNote program.

The following video demonstrates how to use Groups in EndNote.

 

 

Creating Bibliographies

Inserting Citations into Your Paper

  • Place the insertion cursor after the text you are citing.
  • If you are using Microsoft Word, go to the Tools menu and select Go to EndNote.
  • If you are using another word processor, switch to EndNote.
  • Highlight the reference you want to cite from your EndNote library.
  • Here are 5 ways to add a reference to your paper:
    • While still in EndNote, go to Tools, Show Toolbar, CWYW/Add-in, then use the Insert Citation button in that toolbar.
    • While still in EndNote, go to Tools, Cite While You Write, and Insert Selected Citation(s)
    • If you are using Word, go to the Tools menu and select Insert Citation(s).
    • Also with Word, you may choose Insert Citation(s) from the Add-in menu in EndNote.
    • You may copy/paste or drag/drop the reference into the spot in your document where you want to cite it. This works with any word processing software.
  • The "Cite While You Write" feature in EndNote does two things as you insert citations in your document:
    • In-text citations will be formatted into the output style you last used (provided Instant Formatting is enabled -see Formatting Your Bibliography below).
    • An ongoing bibliography will be created in the same style.
 
The EndNote toolbar as it appears in Word.

 

The following video shows how to insert EndNote references into Word.

 

Formatting Your Bibliography

  • Once you have inserted citations into your paper, you may at any time format or re-format your bibliography, providing your EndNote library is open.
  • If you are using Microsoft Word, go to Tools>>EndNote (version no.)>>Format Bibliography.
  • If you do not see the style that you want to use in your list of options, follow the instructions below to change your list of bibliography styles.
  • The Format Bibliography box also allows you to enable or disable Instant Formatting.

The following video demonstrates how to format a bibliography using EndNote with Word.

 

Changing Your List of Bibliography Styles

  • Go to the Edit - Output Styles - Open Style Manager to pick from approximately 500 potential bibliography styles. This is a fraction of available styles. If you don't see the style you need, click the Get More on the Web button where you can search from a list of 5000+ styles.
  • Select as many styles as you would like to be placed in your shortlist of styles.
  • You can always add or remove styles later.
  • Close the Style Manager window.
 
The following video demonstrates how to add bibliography styles to your EndNote shortlist of output styles, including installing styles from the EndNote website.
 

 

Creating an Independent Bibliography

There may be occasions when you will want to create a stand-alone or "independent" bibliography.

  • Open a blank Word document and the EndNote library that contains the citations for your bibliography.
  • Select the citations you want included in your bibliography.
  • Choose your desired output style from the drop-down menu in the toolbar. If you don't see the output style you want click "select another style" at the top of the list. Then choose your style from the subsequent list.
  • While holding down the Ctrl key, drag the highlighted citations into your Word document.

 

 

Deleting Citations from Your Paper

There are two types of citation in your paper: an in-text citation and a bibliography citation. Deleting a citation from the bibliography alone will not remove it permanently - the next time the paper is formatted, the citation will return. Deleting the in-text citation is the way to go, but we recommend you follow these instructions to guarantee a clean removal.

  • In Word, go to the EndNote menu and select Edit & Manage Citation(s) on the left side
  • Look for the citation you wish to delete and click the Edit Reference drop-down button to the right of the citation
  • Select Remove Citation
  • You can also use this menu to re-order references where you have two or more citations cited at the same point in the paper
 

Searching Your EndNote Library

  • Go to the References menu and select Search References.
  • A search screen will appear.
  • At the top of the search screen in the blue area will be the name of the EndNote library that you are searching. Verify that you're in the proper library.
  • Enter your search terms
  • You will see a list of references that meet your search criteria.
  • To see your full library again, go to the References menu and select Show All References or click Show All References in the groups pane.

Editing References

  • Double-click on the reference you want to edit.
  • Change the appropriate field(s).
  • Go to the File menu and select Save.
 

Using EndNote Web: Syncing EndNote Libraries Online or Between Computers

If you use EndNote on different computers, you may want to sync your library from one machine to the other. One way is to just overwrite the library on one computer with the latest version that you've saved to a flash drive or emailed to yourself. Another option is to use EndNote Web, an online back-up for your EndNote libraries that allows you to sync libraries online from one computer and then re-sync to another computer with the same EndNote Web account. This is suitable for a home/work computer set up.

The following video covers syncing between two computers.

Are you interested in sharing a library with other users? See the EndNote X7.2: Library Sharing video.

 

EndNote for iPad

An EndNote iPad app is available for separate purchase from the AppStore. It is not part of the Northwestern site license. The app allows you to search and manage references, but at this time, there is no Cite While You Write functionality so it cannot be used to create bibliographies in Word. The producers of EndNote have put together several comprehensive videos on EndNote for iPad.

 

Updated: July 20th, 2016 10:48