Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) Resources

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The Galter Library teaches a related class called Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) Resources. See our Classes schedule for the next available offering. If this class is not on our upcoming schedule, it is still available to you or your group by request.

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Introduction

Evidence-Based Medicine is the integration of best research evidence with clinical expertise and patient values. (Sackett DL, Straus SE, Richardson WS, et al. Evidence-based medicine: how to practice and teach EBM. 2nd ed. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 2000.)

You may wish to start with our guide to Finding Evidence-based Answers to Clinical Questions Quickly and Effectively.

EBM Pyramid

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TRIP (Turning Research Into Practice) Database

Simultaneously searches evidence-based sources of systematic reviews, practice guidelines, and critically-appraised topics and articles -- including most of those listed above and many more. Also searches MEDLINE’s Clinical Queries, medical image databases, e-textbooks, and patient information leaflets.

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Filtered Resources

Filtered resources appraise the quality of studies and often make recommendations for practice.

Systematic Reviews / Meta-Analyses

Authors of a systematic review ask a specific clinical question, perform a comprehensive literature search, eliminate the poorly done studies and attempt to make practice recommendations based on the well-done studies. A meta-analysis is a systematic review that combines all the results of all the studies into a single statistical analysis of results.

  • The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
    Consists of detailed, structured topic reviews of hundreds of articles. Teams of experts complete comprehensive literature reviews, evaluate the literature, and present summaries of the findings of the best studies. Published by the Cochrane Collaboration. Available through Wiley as part of the Cochrane Library.
     
  • The Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE)
    Full-text database containing structured abstracts of systematic reviews from a variety of medical journals. DARE is produced by the National Health Services' Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (NHS CRD) at the University of York. DARE records cover topics such as diagnosis, prevention, rehabilitation, screening, and treatment. Available through Wiley as part of the Cochrane Library.
     
  • PEDro: The Physiotherapy Evidence Database
    Abstracts database of systematic reviews, RCTs, and clinical guidelines in evidence-based physical therapy practice. Searchable by title, therapeutic modality, and other parameters. PEDro is produced by the Center for Evidence-Based Physiotherapy, at the University of Sydney. Some links to full-text are provided.

Systematic Reviews are also searchable in MEDLINE:

  • Ovid MEDLINE: Enter your search query. Click on "Additional Limits"; select “Systematic Reviews” under “Subject Subsets.”
  • PubMed: Click on “Clinical Queries” under "PubMed Tools" on the PubMed home page; Enter your search query.

Critically-Appraised Topics

Authors of critically-appraised topics evaluate and synthesize multiple research studies.

  • National Guideline Clearinghouse
    A comprehensive database of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines and related documents produced by the Agency for Health Care Research and Quality, in partnership with the American Medical Association and the American Association of Health Plans. Updated weekly.

Note: Guideline evidence varies from expert opinion to high levels of evidence.


Critically-Appraised Individual Articles

Authors of critically-appraised individual articles evaluate and synopsize individual research studies.

  • The ACP Journal Club (archive, 1991-2008)
    Current issues are part of the Annals of Internal Medicine (2008 to present)
    The editors of this journal screen over 100 clinical journals and identify studies that are methodologically sound and clinically relevant. An enhanced abstract, with clearly stated conclusions, and a commentary are provided for each selected article. Published by the American College of Physicians-American Society of Internal Medicine.
     
  • EvidenceAlerts
    Quality articles from over 110 clinical journals are selected by research staff, and then rated for clinical relevance and interest by an international group of physicians. Includes a searchable database of the best evidence from the medical literature and an email alerting system. From DynaMed Plus and McMaster University's Health Information Research Unit. Free registration is required.

“Evidence-Based…” Journal series

(e.g., Evidence-Based Medicine, Evidence-Based Mental Health, Evidence-Based Nursing) Primary research articles within the discipline are selected for quality and clinical relevance. A structured abstract and expert commentary are provided for each study.  Access "evidence based" journals through GalterSearch.

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Unfiltered Resources

Evidence is not always available via filtered resources. Searching the primary literature may be required. It is possible to use specific search strategies in MEDLINE and other databases to achieve the highest possible level of evidence.

  • PubMed
    To limit your PubMed search to the best evidence-producing studies: Click on "Clinical Queries" under "PubMed Tools" on the PubMed home page. This specialized search is intended for clinicians and has built-in search filters. Once you run your initial search, five study categories--therapy, diagnosis, etiology, prognosis, and clinical prediction guides--are provided to help you refine. You may also indicate whether you wish your search to be broad (i.e., include most relevant articles but probably including some less relevant ones) or narrow (i.e., including mostly relevant articles but probably omit a few).
    Useful MeSH for EBM: Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) recommended for evidence-based medicine research.
     
  • Ovid Medline
    To limit your Ovid MEDLINE search to the best evidence-producing studies: Use Clinical Queries in Ovid (similar to PubMed, but with additional categories); click on "Additional Limits" to access this feature.
     
  • Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials
    Register of controlled trials identified by contributors to the Cochrane Collaboration, and is part of an international effort to combine hand searching of the international literature with online searching to create an unbiased source of data for systematic reviews. Includes studies published in MEDLINE, Embase, and other databases, as well as reports published in conference proceedings and other sources not currently indexed in MEDLINE or other bibliographic databases. Available through Wiley as part of the Cochrane Library.
     
  • PsycINFO
    International coverage of the professional and academic literature in psychology, medicine, psychiatry, nursing, sociology, education, pharmacology, physiology, linguistics, and other areas. Available through EBSCO.
    To limit your PsycINFO search to the best evidence-producing studies: Click on Advanced Search and limit to "methodology" types, such as "meta-analysis."
     
  • CINAHL with Full Text
    Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature
    To limit your CINAHL search to the best evidence-producing studies: Click on the ‘Limits’ icon to use ‘Clinical Queries’ or limit to ‘Research’ or other ‘publication’ types (i.e., systematic review).
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Background Information/Expert Opinion

Note: Evidence in these resources may vary from expert opinion to high levels of evidence.

  • UpToDate
    A clinical information resource, which offers up-to-date, fully referenced expert answers to patient-care, diagnosis, and treatment questions. Topic reviews are written by recognized authorities who review the topic, synthesize the evidence, summarize key findings, and provide specific recommendations.
     
  • eMedicine/Medscape
    Physician authors and editors contribute to the eMedicine/Medscape Clinical Knowledge Base, which contains articles on 7,000 diseases and disorders. The evidence-based content provides the latest practice guidelines in dozens of medical specialties. 
     
  • Scientific American Medicine
    Electronic textbook of general medicine; updated continually. Available through Stat!Ref.
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How To Practice EBM

  • JAMAevidence
    Includes the Users' Guides to the Medical Literature. An evidence-based medicine portal containing tools for understanding and applying the medical literature, and for making clinical diagnoses. Included are clinical calculators, core topics, a glossary, podcasts, and guides for systematic consideration of the validity, importance, and applicability of claims about the assessment of health problems and the outcomes of health care.
     
  • Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine (Oxford University)
    The Centre promotes evidence-based health care and provide support and resources to anyone who wants to make use of them. Includes the EBM Toolbox, an assortment of materials which are very useful for practitioners of EBM, and EBM Teaching Materials, including PowerPoint presentations.
     
  • Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine (Toronto)
    Includes many resources for practicing and teaching EBM.
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EBM Tutorials

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Credits

EBM Pyramid and EBM Page Generator, copyright 2006 Trustees of Dartmouth College and Yale University. All Rights Reserved.
Produced by Jan Glover, David Izzo, Karen Odato and Lei Wang.
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Updated: June 14th, 2017 10:10